Following up on the Florida-New York human trafficking (HT) operation uncovered last week leads back to the expansive report by Polaris released in 2018. Polaris detailed the several typologies of HT (below), but a larger question remains:

Who has responsibility, liability or other interests in implementing controls to prevent the facilitation of HT?

Besides the criminals directly involved in running HT operations, many industries and organizations may serve as unknowing enablers to HT, as highlighted in the recent case in Tampa:

  • Who leased the building to the massage parlor? Do the building owners conduct due diligence on their tenants?
  • Who did the owners of the cash-intensive business bank with, and were the millions of dollars in revenue able to be identified as unusual or suspicious?
  • What steps could U.S. Customs and Border Protection have taken to identify the at-risk victims upon entry into the country?


  • Escort Services
  • Illicit Massage Businesses
  • Outdoor Solicitation
  • Residential Sex Trafficking
  • Domestic Work
  • Bars, Strip Clubs, & Cantinas
  • Pornography
  • Traveling Sales Crews
  • Restaurants & Food Service
  • Peddling & Begging
  • Agriculture & Animal Husbandry
  • Personal Sexual Servitude
  • Health & Beauty Services
  • Construction
  • Hospitality
  • Landscaping
  • Illicit Activities
  • Arts, Sports & Entertainment
  • Commercial Cleaning Services
  • Factories & Manufacturing
  • Remote Interactive Sexual Acts
  • Carnivals
  • Forestry & Logging
  • Health Care
  • Recreational Facilities